Play Your Way To Big Wins And Claim Your Bonus At Matchbook: India’s Top Site – The coronavirus is finding new victims in bars and restaurants, offices, markets and casinos around the world, triggering terrifying epidemics that are doing what many scientists have been saying for months: the virus lives in the indoor air, infecting the people around it.
If airborne transmission is a significant factor in infection, especially in crowded places with poor ventilation, the implications for prevention will be significant. Masks may be required indoors, even in social distancing settings. Healthcare workers may need N95 masks, which filter even the smallest respiratory droplets when caring for coronavirus patients.
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Ventilation systems in schools, nursing homes, residences and businesses should reduce recirculation air and add powerful new filters. UV light may be needed to kill viral particles floating in small water droplets indoors.
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The World Health Organization has long believed that the coronavirus is spread primarily by large respiratory droplets that, once expelled when infected people cough and sneeze, quickly fall to the ground.
But in an open letter to the World Health Organization, 239 scientists from 32 countries outlined evidence that small particles can affect people, and asked the agency to reconsider its recommendations. The researchers plan to publish their paper next week in a scientific journal.
Even in the latest update on the coronavirus, published on June 29, the W.H.O. Airborne transmission of the virus is possible only after medical procedures that produce aerosols or droplets smaller than 5 microns, he said. (A micron is equal to one millionth of a meter.)
According to the WHO, proper ventilation and N95 masks are only a concern in such situations. Instead, its infection control guidance before and after this pandemic strongly promoted the importance of handwashing as a primary prevention strategy, despite limited evidence of virus transmission from surfaces. (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now says surfaces may play only a minor role.)
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Dr Benedetta Alegrani, WHO’s technical lead for infection control, said the evidence for airborne transmission of the virus was inconclusive.
«Especially in the last few months, we have repeatedly said that aerial transmission is possible, but certainly not supported by concrete or clear evidence,» he said. «There is a strong debate going on about this.»
But interviews with about 20 scientists — including a dozen from the World Health Organization — did. Consultants and several members of the team that produced the guidance — and internal emails that, despite good intentions, paint a picture of an organization that is beyond science.
These experts say that whether lifted by large droplets that jump into the air after a sneeze, or expelled by very small droplets that can spread the length of a room, the coronavirus is airborne and can infect people when inhaled.
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Most of these experts sympathized with the WHO’s growing portfolio and shrinking budgets, and noted the difficult political relationships it manages, particularly with the United States and China. He praised the WHO. For providing daily briefings to staff and tirelessly answering questions about the pandemic.
But the Prevention and Control Committee in particular, bound by a strict and overly clinical view of scientific evidence, has been slow and risk-averse to update its guidance, giving some conservative voices a chance to shout opposition, experts said. allows
«He would die to protect his sight,» said the long-time W.H.O. The consultant did not want to be identified because he continues to work for the company. Even its staunchest supporters say the group needs to diversify its expertise and loosen its criteria for sources, especially in a fast-spreading outbreak.
«I’m totally disappointed with the issues with airflow and particle size,» said team member and epidemiologist Marie-Louise McClosse of the University of New South Wales in Sydney.
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«If we start rethinking ventilation, we have to be prepared to change a lot,» he said. «I think it’s a great idea, a great idea, but it’s going to send a big shudder through the infection control community.»
In early April, a group of 36 experts on air quality and aerosols urged the World Health Organization. To consider the growing evidence about airborne coronavirus. The agency quickly responded with Lydia Morawska, the group’s chairwoman and longtime W.H.O. Counselor, to arrange a meeting.
But the discussion was dominated by a few experts, who according to some participants were staunch supporters of handwashing and aerosols, and the panel’s advice remained unchanged.
Dr. Morawska and others point to several incidents that indicate airborne transmission of the virus, particularly in poorly ventilated and crowded indoor spaces. He said the W.H.O. An artificial distinction was made between small aerosols and large droplets, although victims produced both.
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«We’ve known since 1946 that coughing and talking create aerosols,» said Lynsey Marr, an expert on the airborne transmission of viruses at Virginia Tech.
Scientists have not been able to grow the coronavirus from aerosols in the laboratory. But that doesn’t mean the aerosols aren’t infectious, Dr. Marr said: Most of the samples in those tests came from hospital rooms with good air flow that lowers virus levels.
In most buildings, he said, «the air exchange rate is usually very low, causing the virus to accumulate in the air and pose a greater risk.»
WHO. Dr Marr said he also relied on the dated definition of airborne transmission. The agency believes an airborne pathogen like the measles virus is highly contagious and must travel long distances.
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Harvard Th. Bill Hinage, an epidemiologist from the US, said, «People in general think and talk about airborne transmission in profoundly unique ways.» Chan School of Public Health.
«Our hypothesis is that droplets suspended in the air infect you hours later, passing through letter boxes on the streets and capable of finding their way into homes everywhere,» Dr Hanes said.
Dr. Soumya Swaminathan, Chief Scientist of the World Health Organization, at a recent news conference. He said in an interview, «We don’t shy away from a challenge — we’re good at being challenged.»
All experts agree that the coronavirus does not work this way. Dr. Marr and others say the coronavirus appears to be more contagious when humans are exposed for longer periods of time, especially indoors, and even more so in superspreader events — as scientists expect from aerosol transmission.
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The agency lags behind most of its member states in approving public masks. While other organizations, including the CDC, have long acknowledged the importance of asymptomatic transmission, the W.H.O. Still maintains that asymptomatic transmission is rare.
“At the country level, a lot of W.H.O. Technical staff are scratching their heads,” said a consultant at a regional office in Southeast Asia, who did not want to be identified for fear of losing his contract. «It doesn’t give us credibility.»
The consultant recalled that the W.H.O. In his country, only employees went without masks because the government there supported them.
Many experts from the W.H.O. Adopting what some call the «precautionary principle» and what others call «needs and values» — even without hard evidence — agencies must assume the worst of the virus, use common sense and do the best they can. There should be security. Recommended.
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Dr. Trish Greenhalgh, a primary care physician at the University of Oxford in England, said, «There is no indisputable evidence that SARS-CoV-2 travels or is significantly spread by aerosols, but there is also no evidence that it doesn’t. D.»
«So at this point we have to make a decision with uncertainty, my goodness, if we get it wrong it could be a disastrous decision,» he said. «So why not wear a mask for a few weeks?»
After all, the W.H.O. Although other health organizations have backed away from pushing that route, he and other researchers are willing to accept the idea without evidence that the virus can spread from surfaces.
«I agree that fomite transmission has not been directly proven for this virus,» said Dr. Alegrancy, WHO’s technical lead on infection control, referring to potentially infectious materials. «But other coronaviruses and respiratory viruses are known to be transmitted, and have been shown to be transmitted through contact with fomites.»
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The agency must consider the needs of all its member states, including countries with limited resources, and ensure that its recommendations are influenced by «availability, feasibility, compliance, and resource implications.»
Dr Paul Hunter, a professor of medicine at the University of East Anglia in England and a member of the Infection Prevention and Control Group, said aerosols may have some limited role in spreading the virus.
But the W.H.O. Lacking the resources to push for stricter control measures, hospitals in low- and middle-income countries may be forced to divert scarce resources from other important programs.
«That’s what an organization like the W.H.O. should achieve,» he said. «It’s the easiest thing in the world.»
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